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Helpful USEPA Papers and Links

Here are three very helpful USEPA papers written by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water between 2002 and 2006.
Finished Water Storage Facilities August 15, 2002
Page 2
2.1.1 Sediment
Sediment accumulation occurs within storage facilities due to quiescent conditions which promote particle settling. Potential water quality problems associated with sediment accumulation include increased disinfectant demand, microbial growth, disinfection by-product formation, and increased turbidity within the bulk water. Instances of microbial contamination and disinfection by-product formation due to storage facility sediments are described in the Pathogen Contamination and Microbial Growth section and the Disinfection By-Product formation section, respectively.
Page 11
Comprehensive inspections are performed to evaluate the current condition of storage facility components. These inspections often require the facility to be removed from service and drained unless robotic devices or divers are used. The need for comprehensive inspections is generally recognized by the water industry. AWWA Manual M42 (1998) recommends that tanks be drained and inspected at least once every 3 years or as required by state regulatory agencies. Most states do not recommend inspection frequencies thereby leaving it to the discretion of the utility. States that do have recommendations are Alabama (5 years), Arkansas (2 years), Missouri (5 years), New Hampshire (5 years), Ohio (5 years), Rhode Island (external once per year; internal, every five years), Texas (annually), and Wisconsin (5 years). Kirmeyer et al. (1999) recommend that comprehensive inspections be conducted every 3 to 5 years for structural condition and possibly more often for water quality purposes.
Page 12
Kirmeyer et al. (1999) recommended that covered facilities be cleaned every three to five years, or more often based on inspections and water quality monitoring, and that uncovered storage Prepared by AWWA with assistance from Economic and Engineering Services, Inc. 12facilities be cleaned once or twice per year. Commercial diving contractors can be used to clean and inspect storage facilities that cannot be removed from service. AWWA Standard C652-92 provides guidelines for disinfection of all equipment used to clean storage facilities.
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On December 2006 Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Total Coliform Rule Issue Paper. Inorganic Contaminant Accumulation in Potable Water Distribution Systems.
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Health Risks from Microbial Growth and Biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems June 17, 2002
Page 26
G. Sediment Accumulation
Significant microbial activity may occur in accumulated sediment (USEPA, 1992b). Organic and inorganic sediments can also accumulate in low-flow areas of the distribution system, and enhance microbial activity by providing protection and nutrients (USEPA, 1992b). Biofilms that slough can accumulate in the periphery of distribution systems leading to sediment accumulation and the proliferation of some microorganisms (van der Kooij, 2000). Sediments may be an important source of nutrients in open finished water reservoirs, by accumulating slowly biodegrading materials which are then broken down and released into the water column (LeChevallier, 1999b). The opportunities for biofilm development may be more abundant in storage tanks than in distribution system piping. Frequently, water is drawn from storage tanks only when water demand is high, such as during drought, fire flow, and flushing operations. This intermittent use results in prolonged storage times that may lead to increased sediment accumulation and lack of a disinfectant residual in the finished water storage vessel. Biological and aesthetic effects can be observed following the release of accumulated sediments from low flow areas of the distribution system (Geldreich, 1990).
Many studies have identified microbes in accumulated sediments, including both pathogens and non-pathogens. These include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae, fungi and invertebrates. Opportunistic pathogens that have been detected, and can multiply in sediments, include Legionella andmycobacteria (van der Kooij, 2000). Some primary pathogens can also survive for some time in sediments. Hepatitis A virus survived more than four months in sediments at both 5/C and 25/C (Sobsey et al., 1986). Other opportunistic pathogens found in sediments include Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium spp. (Berger et al., 1993). Sediments can also release nutrients into the water which stimulate biofilm growth downstream (LeChevallier, 1999b).
Page 34
I. Proper Storage Vessel Management and Alteration
Proper storage vessel management and alteration, when necessary, can prevent contamination of the distribution system. Following TCR violations in 1996 in Washington D.C., one measure that proved effective in bringing the system back into compliance was the cleaning, inspection and disinfection of storage tanks and reservoirs (Clark, et al., 1999). To reduce pathogen presence and biofilm development, systems should have a scheduled program to rehabilitate all water storage facilities (USEPA, 1997). Proper operation and maintenance of storage tanks and reservoirs is listed as a BAT in the TCR (USEPA, 1992b). Storage tanks and standpipes should be pressure flushed or steam cleaned, then disinfected before returned to service (USEPA, 1992b), preferably with a disinfectant solution. This may not only remove microbial contamination from the vessel’s inner surface, but also nutrients that may be present. Proper operation of storage vessels can also reduce excessive residence times, which can lead to microbial survival and growth, and biofilm formation. Properly designed inlets and outlets, and the overall system design can improve problems caused by dead ends (Trussell, 1999). Pathogen contamination due to air introduction can be reduced by installing air filters to guard against pollution entering covered water reservoirs (USEPA, 1992b). Covering finished water reservoirs can protect against contamination from airborne sources, surface runoff, accidental spills and animals, such as insects and birds (USEPA, 1992b). EPA’s Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs Guidance Manual describes recommended contamination control measures related to birds and other animals, human activity, algal growth and insects and fish (USEPA, 1999b). An understanding of the storage hydraulics and operation is important in reducing contamination of the finished water.
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If you need assistance inspecting or cleaning water storage tanks or towers call
Ron Perrin Water Technologies toll free at 1-888-481-1768.
For a fast quote Fax your tank information to 817-246-1740.
Or e-mail your tank information:
Out of Texas contact Robert at perrinsales@gmail.com
Texas Water Utilities please contact Debi Wheelan at tankinspections@aol.com
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Potable Water Diver / Water Tower Inspector Wanted

November 6, 2016 Leave a comment

ESTABLISHED WATER TANK AND TOWER INSPECTION AND CLEANING COMPANY is seeking a commercial diver. CURRENT SCUBA certification and recent diving physical is required, preference given to ADC certified line air divers. We have a full time opening working out of our Main Office in Ft Worth, Tx. This position requires frequent out of town travel (2-5 days a week, often work on a 4 day work week with 3 days off). A valid Drivers license and good driving record is required. For additional information and application see: www.ronperrin.com/employment.  FOR INTERVIEW Call our Office Manager Debi at 817-377-4899.

Job Type: Full-time

Salary: $125 to $140.00 /day depending on training and experience.

Ron Perrin Water Technologies is a sole owned business established in 1997.  We are a leader in the underwater inspection and cleaning of potable water storage tanks and towers in Texas and surrounding states.  To See more of what we do and how we do it visit our company Facebook page, and give us a like! Call 817-377-4899 to schedule an interview or get a free inspection or cleaning quote.

https://www.facebook.com/ronperrinwatertech

YouTube Channel:

http://www.ronperrin.com

CBS 11 i-Team watches as my company inspects and cleans a north Texas water tower.

November 20, 2014 Leave a comment

November 7th, 2014, Ginger Allen and the CBS 11 i-Team watches as my company inspects and cleans a north Texas water tower. The tower was cleaned as a normal maintenance procedure. A light- brown dusting of sediment was removed from the interior floor before it could get deep enough to support bacteria and become a problem.   OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA The tower was cleaned by a Commercial Diver who was trained at OCEAN CORP, Houston, Texas. The Diver is sealed in his own environment, then washed down with a chlorine solution. Because we specialize in the inspection and cleaning of Potable Water Storage Facilities, all of our equipment is purchased for, and only used in, potable water. This utility is doing a great job of maintaining their system. However, utility managers across the country struggle to get the funds to properly maintain their systems. The EPA is currently considering a regulation that would require all water storage facilities to be inspected and cleaned at regular intervals. This new requirement could improve the water quality for millions of Americans.

Ron Perrin Speaks to News Crew

Ron Perrin Speaks to News Crew

The EPA is taking comments on this proposed regulation until the end of the year. We have the contact information posted on our blog, or you can just take our poll at: www.cleanwatertankproject.com. The poll results will be turned in to the EPA at the end of the year.

CBS 11 I-Team Looks At What’s In Your Water Tower

 

 

Chick here to see video Video

http://launch.newsinc.com/embed.html?type=VideoPlayer/Single&widgetId=1&trackingGroup=69016&siteSection=ndn&videoId=28175822

The Written article is here:

http://dfw.cbslocal.com/2014/11/19/watertowers/http://dfw.cbslocal.com/2014/11/19/water-towers/

—–Photos taken by RPWT Office Manager Debi Wheelan

Robert Perrin on com bot talking to the diver

Robert Perrin on com bot talking to the diver

Find us on FACEBOOK  or connect with Ron on Linked-In AND PLEASE SHARE THIS POST AND THE CBS NEWS STORY WITH YOUR FRIENDS EVERYONE DESERVES TO HAVE CLEAN SAFE TAP WATER, Take the Poll at www.cleanwatertankproject.com and we can make this happen!

Now we can add a brain-eating amoeba to the list of contaminants that can be in tank sediment

August 27, 2014 Leave a comment

By Ron Perrin

Removing sediment from the floor of your water tanks and towers may also be removing the habitat that allows bacteria, protozoa and viruses from getting a foothold in your distribution system. Now we can add a brain-eating amoeba to the list of contaminants that the sediment on the floor of your water storage tank can support.

Sediment being Removed from water storage tank

Sediment being Removed from water storage tank

September 16, 2013, NBC News reported: “Deadly brain amoeba infects US tap water for the first time”. The death of a 4-year-old boy near Violet, LA., was linked to the Naegleria fowleri amoeba. The child had been playing on a backyard slip-n-slide that used water from the St. Bernard Parish water system, that was later found to be contaminated with the amoeba. “Tests show it’s present throughout the water supply system in St. Bernard Parish, directly southeast of New Orleans.”

According to the CDC: “Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” or “brain-eating ameba”), is a free-living microscopic ameba, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a rare and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the ameba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances,Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tap water) enters the nose. You cannot get infected from drinking water contaminated with Naegleria.”

The CDC also tested nearby DeSoto Parish Waterworks Dist. #1 because it was the near the site of an infection that happened in 2011 from non-potable water (lake or river, etc.). On October 8, 2013, The CDC confirmed the presence of the rare amoeba in five locations in DeSoto Parish Waterworks Dist. #1.

Heat is also a factor, an increase in only ten degrees can double the speed of bacteria growth. As record high temperatures become more common in summer months we see that keeping water distribution tanks free of sediment build up may be more important than ever before. Removing the sediment from your water tank may prevent a disaster before it can ever start.

The new Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) will be fully implemented in 2016. It requires assessment and corrective action when there are indications of coliform contamination. The RTCR no longer includes a monthly maximum contaminant level violation for multiple total coliform detections. Instead, systems that have indicators of coliform contamination in the distribution system must assess the problem and take corrective action.  Well documented tank inspections should be part of assessing your problem.  If there is sediment build up in the tank, cleaning would be a logical corrective action to take.

The fact is, keeping your tanks clean may also prevent you from getting an RTCR violation in the first place. What we have found is this: Once the sediment is removed, our utility customers discover that chlorine costs are reduced because the chlorine is no longer losing the war with the microbes that were growing in the sediment.

However you choose to do it, just get it done. Do not let it go year after year, out of sight and out of mind.   Knowing what is in your facilities with a good inspection is your first line of defense.  If an accumulation of sediment is found, don’t think of it as “just a little dirt.” Know that it is a broken barrier that can allow contaminants to compromise the entire water supply and the health of the community

About the Author:
CSHO LOGORon Perrin is a Certified Safety and Health Official (CSHO), a member of the Texas Water Utilities Association, AWWA,

Ron Perrin Owner of Ron Perrin Water Technologies

Ron Perrin Owner of Ron Perrin Water Technologies

and the owner of Ron Perrin Water Technologies in Fort Worth, Texas. Since 1997 his company has inspected over seven thousand water storage tanks and towers in 14 states. Ron may be contacted through his web site at http://www.ronperrin.com.
Or contact RPWT Office Manager Debi Wheelan:
tankinspections@aol.com

Call: 817-377-4899

Fax 817-246-1740

Clean Potable Water Tanks & Towers

March 19, 2008 Leave a comment

Sediment being removed from Potable Water Storage Tank. 

Photo: Sediment being removed from Potable Water Storage Tank.

 *       The American Water Works Association recommends that tanks be cleaned at least every three years.  Recent focus on pharmaceuticals in water systems have made more people than ever aware of contaminates that may be lurking in their water supply.   Although pharmaceuticals in drinking water may be in the news the real threat is random bacteria and cryptosporidium spores.

The Threat of Bacteria-

Countless kinds of bacteria can make their way into a public water supply.  Chlorine and other treatment methods are our first line of defense.  When potable water storage tanks are clean small amounts of bacteria that survive the treatment process cycle through the system undetected and harmless due to the small quantity.  Sediment in the tank can capture and harbor these small amounts of bacteria.  The bacteria can start to grow hidden from chlorine deep in the sediment.  Chlorine can even be overwhelmed and depleted if a nitrate eating bacteria is collected.   As the bacteria continues to grow in the sediment month after month and year after year the threat to public health grows.       

  The Threat of Cryptosporidium

The threat of cryptosporidium outbreak is even greater with sediment in the floor of a water storage tank.   Again Sediment can harbor bacteria, cryptosporidium and other contaminates.  The best defense to insure a protozoa like  cryptosporidium will not take up residence in your water storage system may be to keep the tanks free of sediment.  In the Spring of 1993 over 100 people died as a result of a cryptosporidium outbreak that was directly associated with the Howard Avenue Water Purification Plant.  This was the largest water born disease ever documented in United States history.  It is estimated that over 400,000 people became ill with diarrhea.  

Due to the fact that cryptosporidium is a protozoa parasite with a thick outer shell it is highly resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine.  The best defense to ensure it will not inhabit your water system may be to make sure your water tanks remain sediment free.  This will remove and habitat that small amounts bacteria or protozoa could lodge and grow in, Preventing possible public health problem in the most simple way.  Keeping water storage tanks clean.